Hazard perception is the
recognition of conditions that may pose threats to the safety of flight.
Recognizing hazards early is important since it gives you time to react
or plan appropriate defensive action well before any actual danger materializes.
A hazard may be defined as anything of actual or potential danger that
may require you to change your aircraft’s altitude, airspeed, heading,
route of flight, or configuration in order to maintain safety of flight.
Hazards can be caused by:
- Actions taken (or not taken)
by the pilot
- Knowledge or skill deficiencies
of the pilot
- Weather conditions
- Aircraft performance or
- People (or other aircraft)
outside the aircraft
- People or cargo on board
- Combinations of two or
more of these factors.
You are about to see a series of short videos depicting a flight in a
general aviation aircraft.
As you view the videos look
for any hazards that may be present. After each video, we will show you
a list of factors that could have presented a hazard. You will then rate
their severity on a scale of 0 to 5, to indicate to extent to which each
factor represented a hazard.
- 0 – This factor did
not present a hazard
- 1 – This factor presented
a very slight hazard
- 2 – This factor presented
a slight hazard
- 3 – This factor presented
a moderate hazard
- 4 – This factor presented
a severe hazard
- 5 – This factor presented
a very severe hazard
For example, you might see
a video in which a relatively inexperienced pilot without an instrument
rating elects to take off for a short cross-country flight in marginal
VFR conditions. In such an instance, you might decide that the pilot’s
lack of experience in flying in these conditions presents a moderate hazard.
Further, you might decide that the environmental conditions (ceiling height
and visibility) also present moderate or even severe hazards. However,
since the aircraft had a more than adequate supply of fuel on board, you
might decide that fuel did not present a hazard.
Before you begin the actual
test, you will watch an example video, and we will show you examples of
how the factors for that video might be rated.
After you watch a video you will be given feedback -- showing how your ratings compared to the ratings of a panel of experts. You can then review the video, go on the the next video, or quit. There are a total of ten videos.