Aviation Safety Attitude Scale - Civil


The Aviation Safety Attitude Scale (ASAS; Hunter, 1995) was designed specifically to assess pilots’ attitudes with respect to aviation safety issues. Ten items reflect the five hazardous attitudes suggested by Berlin et al. (1982). Additional items assess attitudes regarding weather, the risks encountered in aviation, the likelihood of experiencing an accident, and self-perceived skill.


Number of Items:



Likert. Response choices range from Strongly Agree (5) to Strongly Disagree (1).


Sum of the individual item responses for each subscale.

Comment: The next code computes the factor scores for the ASAS

factor1 = sum(a8, a9, a6, a2, a13, a22, a10, a21, (6 - a25), a18, a20, a23, a7, a4).
factor2 = sum(a26, a5, a27, a24, a19, a1, a12, a16).
factor3 = sum(a15, a3, a11, a17).

Factor Composition:

Three factors identified. ASAS yielded an interpretable three-factor solution that accounted for 27% of the variance. These factors were interpreted as representing self-confidence, risk orientation, and safety orientation. See Hunter (2005).


See normative information, below.

Construct Validity:

Because there is no single instrument that is accepted as the standard of measurement in this area, several measures were used to evaluate the construct validity of the attitude scales, each representing slightly different convergent external constructs or measures of interest. These measures included Zuckerman’s (1994) TAS, the ASLOC (Aviation Safety Locus of Control), measures of pilots’ risk perception and risk tolerance, a measure of pilots’ situational judgment, and a measure of their involvement in hazardous aviation events including accidents.

For the ASAS, 14 out of 30 correlations were statistically significant. Most notably, the ASAS Risk Orientation subscale was significantly correlated with 7 out of the 10 validation measures, the largest was a correlation of .523 with the LOC Externality scale. This indicates that those pilots with the greatest risk orientation also believed that the outcome of situations was largely due to external influences beyond their control. It is also interesting to note the relation between the ASAS Self-Confidence scale and the Risk Perception and Risk Tolerance measures. Specifically, those pilots with the highest self-confidence scores (i.e., believed themselves to be very competent) judged the situations to be less risky than other pilots and were also willing to accept greater risk as part of a flight.

Normative Information:


(From Hunter, 2005) M SD No. of Items Coeff Alpha N
Factor 1: Self-Confidence 46.13 6.67 14 .76 428
Factor 2: Risk Orientation 17.21 3.26 8 .59 438
Factor 3: Safety Orientation 15.97 1.74 4 .40 440

(From Hunter, 2006) M SD N
Factor 1: Self-Confidence 45.39 5.76 228
Factor 2: Risk Orientation 17.39 2.98 228
Factor 3: Safety Orientation 16.15 1.64 228

During the period 2012 - 2013, usable responses were obtained from N = 261 subjects who completed the ASAS online.

For the web sample the reliabilities were:

Factor 1: alpha = .8362 (items a2, a4, a6, a7, a8, a9, a10,  a13, a18, a20, a21, a22, a23) Note that question 25 was deleted, as that resulted in an increase in the reliability.    

Factor 2:  alpha = .803 (items a1, a5,a12, a16 a19,a24, a26 a27)

Factor 3:  alpha = .3993 (items a3, a11, a15, a17)





Hunter, D.R. (2004). Measurement of hazardous attitudes among pilots. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 15, 23-43.

Download the scale (Word format).